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History Of 419 Scam


The 419 scam was originated during 1990s as the oil-based economy of Nigeria went downward. Several unemployed university students first used this 419 scam as a way of manipulating business visitors interested in shady deals in the Nigerian oil sector before aiming greedy businessmen in the west, and then later the wider population. Early alternates were often sent via letter, fax, or throu gh Telex.

History Of 419 Scam

The spread of email and very easy access to email-harvesting software made the cost lower of sending scam letters through the internet extremely cheap. While various figures have violently claimed, which the 419 scam employs as many as 250,000 people in the Nigeria, in reality it has regularly been linked only to small organized gangs often working in concert with western cities and in Nigeria. In recent years, the 419 scam has urged imitations in a variety of trouble spots in Africa and in Eastern Europe.

In fact the advance fee fraud (419 scam) is a very old Nigerian scam than that, dating back to 1588 where letters were written stating to be from a prisoner trapped in a Spanish castle. The fictitious prisoner would further promise to share a treasure with a person who will send them money to bribe their guards.



The number "419" indicates to the article of the Nigerian Criminal Code(part of Chapter 38: "Obtaining Property by fake pretences; Cheating") dealing with fraud. The American Dialect Society has traced the term "419 Scam" back to 1992.

Variants

There are many variations on the most frequent scam419, and also many differences on the way the scam works. The following are famous variations from the standard Nigerian Letter scam, but still retain the core elements; the victim is mislead by some excessively large gain into sending an advance payment, which once made is lost.

Check cashing

check-cashing

Some schemes are based exclusively on cheat the victim into cashing a fake check. The scammer contacts the victim to interest them in a "work-at-home" chance, or asks them to cash a check or money order that for some motive cannot be redeemed locally.

A difference of the check-cashing system involves owners of vacation rentals. The scammer conveys interest in renting the unit for a much higher than normal rate, typically for an upcoming honeymoon, business trip, etc.

Lottery-Certificate-fake

Lottery scam

The lottery scam entails fake notices of lottery wins. The winner is typically asked to send sensitive information to a free e-mail account. The scammer then informs the victim that releasing the funds requires some small fee (insurance, registration, or shipping). Once the victim sends the fee, the scammer invents another fee.

Hitman

An e-mail is sent to the victim's inbox, allegedly from a hitman who has been appointed by a "close friend" of the beneficiary to kill him or her but will call off the hit in exchange for a large sum of money. This is frequently backed up with a warning not to contact the local police or FBI, or the "hitman" will be forced to go through with the plan.

Bomb-scam

Bomb scams

It is related to the hitman scam, the scammer contacts a business, mall, office building, or other profitable location with a bomb threat. The scammer says they will explode the bomb unless the management of the business does as the scammer tells them. Often, the scammer says they have the store under observation; however, analysis of the calls by police has recognized that the vast mass of threat calls are made from other states or even from outside the country.

Financial loss estimates

Estimates of the total losses due to the scam vary extensively. The Snopes website lists the following estimate:

"The Nigerian scam is hugely successful. According to a 1997 newspaper article: "We have confirmed losses just in the United States of over $100 million in the last 15 months," said Special Agent James Caldwell, of the Secret Service financial crimes division. "And that's just the ones we know of. We figure a lot of people don't report them."




Physical damage or death

  • Some victims have appointed private investigators in Nigeria or have individually travelled to Nigeria, without ever recovering their money. There are cases of victims being unable to handle with the losses and committing suicide.
  • In November 2003, Leslie Fountain, a senior technician at Anglia Polytechnic University in England, set himself on fire after falling victim to a scam; Mr. Fountain died of his injuries.
  • In 2006 an American living in South Africa hanged himself in Togo after being cheated by a Ghanaian 419 con man.
  • In 2007, a Chinese student at the University of Nottingham killed herself after she exposed that she fell for a lottery scam.
  • In February 2003, Jirí Pasovský, a 72 year-old scam victim from the Czech Republic, shot and killed 50-year old Michael Lekara Wayd, an official at the Nigerian delegation in Prague, and injured another person, after the Nigerian Consul General explained he could not return $600,000 that Pasovský had lost to a Nigerian scammer

Kidnapping

  • Osamai Hitomi, a Japanese businessman was attracted to Johannesburg, South Africa in a 419 scam and kidnapped on 26 September 2008. The kidnappers took him to Alberton, south of Johannesburg and demanded a $5 million ransom from his family. Seven people were arrested.
  • On 23 September 2008, a Kenth Sadaaki Suzuki, a Swedish businessman, was attracted to South Africa and kidnapped. He was taken to a house in Rosettenville in Johannesburg and steals of all his belongings. Thereafter a ransom of €20,000 was demanded from his family. Two people were arrested. They are also associated to the kidnappings of three American citizens and perhaps other similar cases.
  • On 2 June 1996 in Lomé, Togo, 419ing kidnappers held a Swedish businessman for $500,000. Swedish police and the kidnappers discussed before the kidnappers released the man on 12 June 1996.

Murder

  • 29-year old George Makronalli, a Greek man, was murdered in South Africa in December 2004 after his family rejected to pay a ransom.
  • Kjetil Moe, a Norwegian businessman, was reported missing and finally killed after a trade with Nigerian scammers in Johannesburg, South Africa (September 1999).
  • One American was murdered in Nigeria in June 1995 after being lured by a 419 scam. From 1994 to April 1997, 419 scammers murdered 15 people in total.

Emotional hurt

Victims, in addition to having lost large sums of money, frequently also lose their capacity to trust.

The difficult problem is the public view of scam letters and scam victims. Scam letters are frequently viewed as amusingly moronic, and the people who fall for them equally so. The victim, having lost money through the scammer's handling of payment methods such as money orders or cheques, may become suspicious of the financial system. Scam victims may stop trusting and giving money to churches, legitimate charities and, in the tremendous, even service providers such as their electric company because of their requests for money. Some victims commit suicide.

Fake Documents

A significant part of the 419-Scam is fake documents. Scammers used this documents to prove the existence of the millions of dollars that are waiting, and to validate the fees that come up during the process.

It includes...

  • Death Certificate
  • Certificate of Deposit from the bank
  • Fake Passports
  • ID cards and Drivers License
  • Lottery Winning Certificate

Death Certificate

Fake Death certificates are frequently used by the scammers to confirm the victim that the person death. The death person’s family didn’t claim the amount from our bank for the past 10 years. Then the scam will start...

Fake Death certificates

Certificate of Deposit

Certificate of Deposit are key elements in many advance-fee scams, such as auction/classified listing overpayment, lottery scams, inheritance scams, etc, and can be used in approximately any scam when a "payment" to the victim is required to gain, regain or further freeze the victims' trust and confidence in the validity of the scheme.

Certificate of Deposit

Passports

Passports and other Identifications are used in Nigerian 419 Scams in West Africa. The purpose is to call the victim to Nigeria .

Passports Id-card-fake Drivers-License-fake

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